April 2020 is the start of #the100dayproject and again I’m joining in. My love of patterns, the natural, organic flow of nature like the way schools of fish move is going to be my inspiration. So this year exploring species and conservation, I’m going to create a new design each and every day using #100daysofpatternfromthesea


For the first time I will be offering a selection of these artworks for sale as limited edition prints




Day 1/100

Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens)


1. Described as the most heavily fish in world history


2. They can live for up to 3 years, reaching 20 cm 


3. Previously it was not considered as food, now found in supermarkets and served in restaurants. Still, only 1 percent of anchovy catches are used for direct human consumption and 99 percent continue to be reduced to fishmeal and oil




Day 2/100

South American pilchard (Sardinops sagax)


1. This is a coastal species that forms large schools 


2. They feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans


3. This species is classed as an important commercial fish, heavily fished then sold fresh, frozen or canned also used for fish meal and fish oil



Day 3/100

The Large spotted Herring (Herklotsichthys koningsbergeri)


1. This fish forms schools in coastal waters and enters inlets and lower reaches of rivers


2. This is a data poor species and there is currently no available information relating to its population status, basic biology, or life history


3. Native to Australia it’s uses and trade information is lacking




Day 4/100

The queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) 


1. At about 7 cm in size, this is one of the smaller scallop species which are commercially exploited


2. The shell of this species is quite colourful, but it is also thin and brittle


3. The shell often gets overgrown with encrusting sponge that is thought to protect the scallop from predation by starfishes while the sponges are protected from predation by the sea slug





Day 5/100

Allis shad (Alosa alosa)


1. Populations have been reduced primarily by overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction


2. They can usually only reproduce once in their lifetimes


3. They can grow up to 70cm in length




Day 6/100

European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus)


1. Growing up to 45cm in length


2. Smelt is a small fish that generally live close to the shore and can swim far inland


3. Bizarrely, this fish has a strange cucumber-like smell when freshly caught



Day 7/100

The blue runner (Caranx crysos)


1. This species can be found living in a few different habitat types, however they primarily live in inshore regions close to the surf zone or beach


2. They are heavily preyed upon by both commercial and recreational fisheries


3. They feed on smaller fishes so is itself an important prey species for larger predators




Day 8/100

The thicklip grey mullet (Chelon labrosus)


1. Mullet are a slow growing, long living and late maturing fish, which means they are vulnerable to being overfished


2. They live to around 25 years old


3. Grey Mullet are catadromous (which means that they migrate from freshwater to seawater to spawn




Day 9/100

Green-lipped Mussel (Perna canaliculus)


1. The green colour comes from a covering called the periostracum, in the wild this often peels away and the white shell beneath shows through


2. These bivalves filter the water that passes into their shells and absorb the phytoplankton


3. Sometimes pea crabs live inside the mussel’s shell and steal plankton from its gills



Day 10/100

The European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus)


1. It is a migratory, schooling, largely coastal species but sometimes travels as far as 100 km (62 mi) out to sea


2. This species is thought to live for up for five years


3. There is much confusion over the name of this species and it is often mistaken for other similar species. This species is of high commercial value. The adults may be sold as pilchards and the juveniles, as sardines. The terms "sardine" and "pilchard” are not precise, and what is meant depends on a region





Day 11/100

Limpet, Ornate (Cellana ornata)


1. They can tolerate losing 60% of their body water and temperatures of 40 degrees celsius


2. Often found grazing on algae on rocks


3. Native to New Zealand



Day 12/100

Chambered Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius)


1. The chambered nautilus lives in deep waters and is one of very few species of shelled invertebrates that live this way instead of being in contact with the seafloor or reef surface


2. This species has as many as 90 appendages but does not have suckers on its tentacles, it obtains food by wrapping several tentacles around its prey and pulling the prey toward its mouth 


3.Like in most shelled animals, this species can retract completely into its shell when threatened



Day 13/100

The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)


1. Due to overfishing the total North American Pacific herring fishery collapsed in 1993, and is now slowly recovering


2. This species of fish can grow to 45 cm but a typical adult size is closer to 33 centimeters


3. It is a hugely important fish to the ecology of the Pacific coast with many fish, sea mammals, and birds relying on it and its eggs for food



Day 14/100

The California mussel (Mytilus californianus)


1. Given the right circumstances, they can grow up to 20cm in length and live for more than 20 years


2. Mussels secrete protein fibers called byssal threads from a gland in the foot that they use to attach themselves to hard surfaces and to each other


3. Communities of these mussels can grow into very large groups that may consist of about one million individuals. Newly-settled mussels often attach on top of older mussels in crowded mussel beds



Day 15/100

Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)


1. This is one of the most abundant fish species in the world,  found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean


2. They congregating in large schools that consist of thousands to hundreds of thousands or even millions of individuals


3. They have excellent hearing, and a school can react very quickly to evade predators



Day 16/100

The blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo)


1. It has small sharp teeth and larger, flatter teeth set into the sides of the jaws


2. This species is a protandric hermaphrodite, which means it is first a male and then it becomes female


3. Due to its particular biology, it may be especially sensitive to overfishing and declines from fishing are the main threat to this species



Day 17/100

The Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)


1. A highly commercial species, nearly 1 million tonnes of are caught each year globally, the bulk of which is sold fresh, frozen, smoked, or canned


2. It is an active, fast-moving fish that must keep in constant motion to bring in enough oxygen to survive


3. They can reach sizes of up to 60 cm and live to 17 years




Day 18/100 

Ilish (Tenualosa ilisha)


1. It is the national fish of Bangladesh and about 450,000 people are directly involved in the catching of the fish as a large part of their livelihood; around four to five million people are indirectly involved with the trade


2. Due to the demand and popularity of this species, overfishing is rampant


3. The changes brought about by global warming have led to a gradual depletion of the ilish's breeding grounds, reducing populations of the fish even further




Day 19/100

The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)


1. They are widely eaten, some people eat them raw


2. They grow up to 20cm and school in large numbers 


3. It is a short-lived fish, generally living less than three years





Day 20/100

Velvet swimming crab (Necora puber)


1. Their body is covered in short hairs that give a velvet appearance and are soft to the touch


2. Their rear-most legs are flattened like paddles, helping them speedy swim underwater to catch prey


3. They are also known as the Devil Crab, from their red eyes and aggressive behaviour





Day 21/100

The Pontic shad (Alosa immaculata)


1. This species is of high commercial value


2. They migrate up rivers to spawn however dams are restricting the migrations


3. Pollution may also be responsible for their decline



Day 22/100

The giraffe seahorse (Hippocampus camelopardalis)


1. It can grow to lengths of 10 cm


2. Population and habitat monitoring are needed in order to properly assess the conservation status of this species.


3. Major threats to this species could be habitat loss, through coastal development and pollution, and overexploitation through bycatch. Other threats include human use by drying out the seahorse for traditional medicine or as a curio



Day 23/100

The round sardinella (Sardinella aurita)


1. It is found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea


2. This is a species with high commercial importance


3. The fish prefer shallower waters and can grow up to 28cm



Day 24/100

Japanese Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus)


1. They live up to 2–3 years


2. Similar to European anchovy they occurs in large schools near the surface with the juveniles found drifting in seaweed 


3. Since the development of commercial fisheries that target this species, they have seriously declined in recent years due to overfishing


Day 25/100

Quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria)


1. Confusingly, the Ocean quahog (Arctica islandica) is a different species


2. In fish markets, there are specialist names for different sizes of this species of clam. The smallest legally harvestable clams are called countnecks or peanuts, next size up are littlenecks, then topnecks. Above that are the cherrystones, and the largest are called quahogs or chowder clams


3. New England tribes made valuable beads called wampum from the shells, especially those colored purple; the species name mercenaria is related to the Latin word for commerce



Day 26/100

Lesser sand eel (Ammodytes tobianus)


1. This fish can be distinguished from the greater sand eel by its smaller size , typically less than 20 cm 


2. It is commonly found swimming in huge shoals that rapidly burrows in sand if alarmed


3. Excessive fishing of sand eels on an industrial scale in the North Sea has been linked to a decline in the breeding success of many seabirds




Day 27/100

Pacific Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus)


1. They form large schools staying near the bottom during the day and going up to the open water at night


2. It is a smaller fish than the better-known Atlantic mackerel, growing to a length around 36 cm


3. Known to fishermen as the hardhead, the chub mackerel is regularly fished and then canned or served fresh for human consumption, as pet food or bait.


Day 28/100

The European sprat (Sprattus sprattus)


1. Sprat is often used as a generic term for any kind of small fish, however, the European sprat is actually a specific species


2. Sprat form into large shoals and can be found in water ranging from a few metres deep all the way down to around one hundred metres


3. They are popular as a food fish and are also heavily utlised for non-human consumption purposes, such as being processed into fishmeal



Day 29/100

John Dory (Zeus faber)


1. There are several theories about the origin of the common name but little evidence about its actual meaning


2. This species is typically solitary but comes together in groups to reproduce


3. It has a high laterally compressed body so thin it can hardly be seen from the front and it  has a large dark spot on both sides which it uses to confuse prey, which can then be sucked into its mout


Day 30/100

Blue jellyfish (Cyanea lamarckii)


1. Growing to 30cm but are typically half this size with a painful sting


2. They have a translucent body with purple blue rings inside with lots of tentacles to easily capturing prey 


3. They are attracted inshore by blooms of plankton 



Day 31/100

The Black Sea sprat (Clupeonella cultriventris)


1. This small fish is part of the herring family typically 10 cm


2. It has a lifespan of up to 5 years


3. It can be found in quick moving, enormous shoals around coastal shallows


Day 32/100

By-the-wind-sailor (Velella velella)


1. A close relative, but not a jellyfish they can grow to 10cm with short tentacles that give a mild but harmless sting.


2. These beautiful creatures are blue in colour, shaped like an oval with a small thin semicircular fin which acts like a sail to catch the wind and glides them across the surface of the water


3. Evolution has split the population in two, giving Velella either a right angled sail or a left angled sail. This propels them downwind either 45 degrees to the left of the wind or 45 degrees to the right of the wind. On a strong given wind direction, only half the population will end up beached



Day 33/100

Asian green mussel (Perna viridis)


1. It is an economically important mussel, harvested for food 


2. Younger mussels are bright green and that becomes darker as it age


3. It is fast growing and is notorious for clogging water pipes used by industrial complexes and fouling marine equipment



Day 34/100

Californian Anchovy (Engraulis mordax)


1. They swim in schools of thousands to avoid predators


2. When they appear to be yawning, they’re actually opening their mouths wide to filter feed on tiny plant and animal plankton from the water


3. They are used as processed into fishmeal, bait for tuna and occasionally canned





Day 35/100

Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus)


1. They live up to 2–3 years


2. They move in large schools near the surface, mainly in coastal waters but as far out as over 1,000 km from the shore


3. They are of economy importance, the dried tiny anchovy is called Iriko, mainly used for fish broth or for Japanese food such as Miso soup




Day 36/100

Blue button (Porpita porpita)


1. Although it is superficially similar to a jellyfish, each apparent individual is actually a colony of hydrozoan polyps, this hydroid colony, can range from bright blue turquoise to yellow and resembles tentacles like those of the jellyfish


2. It can grow up to 30mm and is a passive drifter, which means that it relies on water currents and wind to carry it through the ocean


3. It has a sting but not a powerful one, it may cause slight irritation to human skin



Day 37/100

The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica)


1. This particular type of oyster has an important environmental value. They suck in up to 50 gallons of water in one day and filter out the plankton and detritus to swallow, then spit the water back out, so cleaning the water around them


2. Eastern oysters are and have been very popular commercially, today, there are less than 1% of the population when the first 17th-century colonists arrived


3. The cavity within an oyster’s shell is always filled with water. This allows oysters to survive for a long time without having to open their shells to feed





Day 38/100

Lion's Mane (Cyanea capillata)


1. Average diameter of 50cm it can grow to 2m with tentacles as long as 30m, with very dangerous severe sting, often causing anaphylactic shock.


2. It capable of stinging even when they're dead or the tentacles are no longer attached to the jellyfish


3. It is bioluminescent so glows in the dark, the largest and one of the oldest species of jellyfish in the world with a thin mass of tentacles resembling a lions mane



DAY 39/100

American shad (Alosa sapidissima) 


1. They are schooling fish spending most of their life in the ocean, swimming up freshwater rivers to spawn. Many of the rivers where shad were once common now suffer from pollution and are heavily dammed


2. The American shad has been described as the fish that fed the American nation's founders


3. They serve notable symbolic roles in regional politics and culture there’s even an annual Shad Festival



Day 40/100

Spotted Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda)


1. Listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red list, it is also threatened by damage to its habitats from coastal development and destructive fishing practices


2. It is caught and traded for traditional medicines, aquaria and curios throughout its range with over 2 million individuals traded per annum


3. They can reach a length of 17–30cm but are not strong swimmers, seahorses greatly prefer to inhabit the calmer shallow waters





Day 41/100

Brownlip abalone (Haliotis roei)


1. The size of the shell varies between 50mm and 120mm. 


2. The shell consists of strong unequal spiral cords crossed by radiating folds


3. The color of the shells inner surface is silvery, very iridescent, with pink, green and steel-blue reflections



Day 42/100

The scaled sardine (Harengula jaguana)


1. This species form very large schools in coastal waters, found over sandy and muddy bottoms in estuaries


2. They are fast-growing, up to 18cm and have a very short lifespan, living less than 3 years


3. Listed at least concern in the IUCN redlist, possibly as it’s flesh is reported to have an unpleasant odor and it is considered to be toxic, considered to be unsuitable for human consumption



Day 43/100

Boar fish (Capros aper)


1. They can grow to 30 cm, but generally about 20cm, with males being smaller than females


2. Their small scales are rough to touch and feed on or around the seabed and often form into shoals


3. They have been ignored as a commercial fish and those large enough to be caught in trawls are usually discarded as bycatch or used to bait crab and lobster pots


Day 44/100

Flame Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum)


1. Growing to 70cm in diameter with a sting generally not noticeable to humans, although some people can have reactions to them.


2. It is a popular seafood, eaten raw, in southeastern Asia often bred in ponds before being released into the sea to grow to a mature size suitable for the fishery


3. Underneath the bell it has highly branched flame like oral arms, fused at the base and with numerous secondary mouth openings



Day 45/100

Common lobster (Homarus gammarus)


1. The claws are not symmetrical but differ slightly as one is a crushing claw to hold prey and the other a cutting claw.


2. They can grow to over 60cm but due to the commercial pressure on the common lobster very few grow to their maximum size, being caught well before they are fully grown


3. They generally hide away in cracks and crevices in rocks during the day, and emerge to feed at night when they scour the seabed and will eat pretty much anything they can find



Day 46/100

The common cockle (Cerastoderma edule)


1. It plays a major role as a source of food for crustaceans, fish, and wading birds


2. It is an important species for the fishing industry, cooked and eaten in several countries sometimes eaten pickled, or raw


3. It typically reaches 3.5 cm but sometimes it reaches 6 cm





Day 47/100

Slender Rainbow Sardine (Dussumieria elopsoides)


1. It grows to a length of 20cm


2. It is of minor commercial importance to the fisheries industry, marketed fresh, dried, or salted


3. This species is a schooling species that is found in inshore waters of the continental shelf