Joining the positive voices for change, for the 2019 Instagram #the100dayproject

I’m exploring and learning more about the important issues threatening vulnerable marine life and the

consequences of unbalance in the oceans from the IUCN red list.

I’m using the sad but accurate #100daysclosertoextinction





Day 1/100

North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis)

Endangered, population decreasing.


1. The species is named by early whalers who considered them slow-moving and easy to catch making them the ‘right’ whales to hunt.  


2. It has been illegal to hunt right whales since 1935.


3. Threats today include plastic pollution, ship collisions, entanglement in fishing nets and separation from young in areas because of shipping traffic. Without intervention, scientists predict they may disappear in the next 20 years





Day 2/100

Whale shark (Rhincodon typus)

Endangered, population decreasing.


1. This are the largest fish on the planet and in no way related to whales.


2. IUCN red list moved this species just a few years ago from vulnerable to endangered implying it faces a very high risk of extinction.


3. The main threat to whale sharks is the growth of unregulated fisheries which supply an international trade for shark fins, liver oil (used to waterproof wooden boats), skin and meat in East Asian countries.





Day 3/100

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna  (Thunnus thynnus)

Endangered, decreasing population.


1. Their average weight has halved since the 1970’s.


2. Heavily overfished, the Atlantic bluefin is a highly sought-after for sashimi in Asia.


3. Tuna are a top predator in the marine food chain so they maintain a balance in the ocean environment.




Day 4/100 

Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)

Vulnerable species.


1. It has a brain five times the size of a human’s.


2. Once a sperm whales reach maturity, they have no predators capable of killing them except man.


3. Main threats include being harmed or killed by chemical pollution, noise pollution, fishing net entanglement and collisions with ships.





Day 5/100

Common Skate(Dipturus batis)

Critically Endangered


1. The largest species of skate in the world, they have between 40 and 56 rows of teeth.


2. Decades of overfishing have damaged the seabed that this fish relies on.


3. You can help by avoiding eating 'ray wings', sometimes labelled as Rays, sadly these can often be Skates.






Day 6/100 

Anchovy (engraulis ringens)

Population unknown, least concerned red list


1. This is the most heavily exploited fish in world history.


2. Despite their vital role in the ecosystem food chain, anchovy fishing continues to be managed using decades-old data.


3. Rising sea temperatures impacts their population.



Day 7/100 #the100dayproject

Narwhal (Monodon monoceros)

IUCN Red listed as least concerned.


1.The tusk has sensory capability, with millions of nerve endings inside.


2. Newborn narwhal are speckled blue-grey, teens are blue-black, adults are speckled grey and old narwhal are almost all white.


3. One of the main threats to narwhals is the rapid climate changes in Arctic warming. Very few laws have are in place to protect this species.





Day 8/100 

Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

Status: Vulnerable


1. In the UK, Atlantic cod is one of the most common kinds of fish to be found in fish and chips. As fisheries have become more efficient at catching cod, overfishing has caused cod populations to decline.


2. Atlantic cod can change colour at certain water depths, going from grey-green to reddish brown.


3. The barbel on its chin acts as a sensory mechanism to help find food.



Day 9/100 

Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula Arctica)

Vulnerable, population decreasing


1. Population numbers have fallen sharply, and there are even fears the sea bird could be heading towards extinction within the next 100 years. The decline in numbers is caused by their limited breeding population and low reproductive rate, laying just one egg a year.


2. They are hunted by humans and other animals. Smoked or dried puffin is considered a delicacy (or a flavouring for porridge) in places such as Iceland and the Faroe Islands.


3. When a puffin is around 3-5 years old, it will choose a partner at sea to mate with for life In winter, the puffin’s famously colourful beak becomes dull and grey






Day 10/100 

Silky Shark (Carcharhinus falciformis)

Vulnerable species


1. This shark gets its name from the smooth and silky texture of its skin.


2. The silky shark has declined rapidly because of industrial fishing, more than 5,000 silky sharks die each year in the nets of vessels fishing for tuna.


3. Silky Shark is one of the three most traded shark species in the global shark fin trade.




Day 11/100 

Vaquita  (Phocoena sinus)

Critically Endangered


1. With fewer than 30 remaining this is the world’s most rare marine mammal sadly now on the edge of extinction.


2. The vaquita, which means "little cow" in Spanish.


3. While vaquitas are not targeted by fishermen, they are being driven to extinction due to bycatch from the illegal totoaba trade. The totoaba is in high demand for its swim bladder, a gas-filled internal organ that allows the fish to ascend and descend by controlling its buoyancy. The swim bladder is highly prized as a traditional health food in China and is subject to skyrocketing demand.




Day 12/100 

European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)

Least concern population decreasing


1. There are approximately 55 species of seagulls.


2. As the result of disease, pollution, and habitat loss, new evidence suggests that if the decline continues the species may warrant uplisting to Near Threatened.


3. Like many seagulls, the European herring gull eats a variety of prey and will hunt and scavenge for food. In today’s ecosystem, garbage now accounts for a large percentage of this gull’s diet.




Day 13/100 

Atlantic Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)



1. The Atlantic halibut is the largest flatfish in the world, the record fish weighing more than a baby African elephant!


2. After decades of harvesting this popular eating fish, the population of Atlantic halibut now remains at less than 10 percent of what it was in the 1950s.


3. Atlantic halibut are farmed in Scotland but unless more extreme measures are taken soon, it is very likely that wild Atlantic halibut will quickly disappear.


Day 14/100 

European Pilchard (Sardina pilchardus)

Least concern but population unknown, rated fish to avoid


‍1.This small, shoaling fish is of high level commercial importance however there is much confusion over the name of this species and it is often confused with other similar species.


2.European pilchards can be sold fresh or frozen, although UK consumers are most likely to come across this species tinned or canned. This species is also used as a commercial fishing bait on long-lines.


3.This fish is a forage species providing prey to many larger fish and marine mammals, large scale removal can have knock-on effects.




Day 15/100

Yellowfin Tuna  (Thunnus albacares)

Near threatened, decreasing population


1.Global expansion and technological developments had a major impact on tuna fishing this overexploitation risks stock collapse.


2.The yellowfin tuna is one of the fastest swimmers in the ocean which is why in some locations they can be found swimming with dolphins.


3.Tuna contains more mercury than other popular seafood that equals or exceeds a person’s weekly reference dose.





Day 16/100

Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus)

Least concern, population stable


1. Gray Whales have been hunted since prehistoric times, and were particularly vulnerable to whalers due to their slow swimming speeds and coastal distribution.


2. Gray Whales are protected from commercial whaling but now subject to new threats such as entanglements in fishing gear, noise and ship strikes.


3. Plastic debris has been found in stomachs of dead Gray whales.






Day 17/100

Great Seahorse (Hippocampus kelloggi)

Vulnerable population decreasing


1. The Traditional Chinese medicine trade takes in excess of 150 million seahorses a year from the wild and these are used for all types of medicine.


2. The legal and illegal trade for dried seahorse as souvenirs takes seahorses from the wild. They are deliberately taken from the sea and left to die in the boiling sun and then sold as a sad reminder of once beautiful creatures.


3. Hundreds of thousands of seahorses are sold for the aquarium trade driven primarily by North American. Most of these seahorses are juveniles which usually die in a very short time.







Day 18/100 

Atlantic Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus)

Vulnerable population decreasing


1. This is a species with high commercial importance, this species is also targeted by the recreational fishery.


2. In the summer months they are common near the coast, but in winter they emigrate to deep waters.


3. The atlantic horse mackerel has a small needle on the first dorsal fin that it can use to inject poison and cause painful pricks.


Day 19/100 

Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

Critically endangered population decreasing


1. Humans are the reason this species is critically endangered. From using their shells to make jewellery, to harvesting eggs for human consumption (cultures believing the eggs have aphrodisiac qualities, there is no scientific evidence to support this), and taking hatchlings from nests and kept as pets.


2. Accidental capture in fishing nets and by fishing lines is a huge threat to all sea turtles worldwide along with marine debris poses another significant problem, responsible for killing more than 100 million marine animals each year. It is believed that almost all sea turtles will ingest plastic in some form during their life.


3.Coastal development can result in significant beach erosion and the loss of crucial nesting habitat. Erosion can leave little space for nesting female sea turtles to lay their eggs.



Day 20/100 

Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus)

Vulnerable population decreasing


1. Bigeye tuna are generally smaller than bluefin and larger than yellowfin. They are an important commercial fish, usually marketed as fresh or frozen and highly valued as a sushi fish, especially in Japan.


2. Although tuna do provide food and livelihoods for people, they are more than just seafood, they are a top predator in the marine food chain, maintaining a balance in the ocean environment.


3. Longline fishers use thousands of dangling hooks on lines stretching up to 60 nautical miles long creating a curtain of death across huge swaths of the ocean, indiscriminately catching large amounts of other marine life along with the targeted bigeye tuna, including whales, dolphins, turtles, sharks and seabirds.





Day 21/100

False Herring (Harengula clupeola)

Lear’s concern population decreasing


1. The false herring has teeth on its tongue.


2. Along with pollution and overfishing, coastal developments built on seagrass beds, mangroves are considered to be major threats for the population.


3. These fish swim in shoals that move in sync as a defence mechanism.




Day 22/100

Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

Near threatened population unknown


1. The minke whale was originally overlooked by commercial whaling until the later half of the 20th century because they were considered too small to be of value.  Because of the decimation in larger baleen whale stocks, and the minke’s apparent abundance, they have since been very heavily targeted.


2. Since 1986, commercial whaling has been prohibited by the International Whaling Commision. Minkes are however still hunted for ‘scientific’ reasons by Japan, leading to large quantities of their meat turning up in restaurants and in markets.


3. Minke have additional problems such as those caused by environmental change and pollution. They also become bycatch in fishing nets and traps.




Day 23/100

Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga)

Near threatened, decreasing population


1. These fish are important commercially, as they are one of the two main canned tuna species along with skipjack, labeled as ‘solid white’ tuna.  Albacore tuna contains mercury levels almost three times higher than the smaller skipjack tuna.


2. Tuna are a top predator in the marine food chain, a decreasing population upsets the balance in the ocean environment.


3. Most populations of albacore have been totally overfished. The only relatively healthy stocks are in the Pacific, but these are in sharp decline.


Day 24/100

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

Listed least concerned population unspecified


1. Most of the salmon sold at supermarkets and restaurants is not wild-caught salmon.  Commercial salmon farming threatens wild salmon populations by eroding the gene pool through interbreeding with escapees, as well as promoting the spread of parasites and diseases.


2. As our seas become more polluted all fish absorb at least some contaminants from the waters they swim in. Farmed salmon also absorb pesticides and antibiotics they have added as they live in unsanitary concentrated pens. These chemicals contribute to further damage of the local areas where fish farms are located.


3. Other hazards to salmon include dams and other man-made obstructions preventing salmon migration, river engineering projects interfere with natural habitat and ecological processes. Climate change is also increasingly affecting the salmon at sea and is a major priority for action.




Day 25/100

Skipjack Tuna  (Katsuwonus pelamis)

Listed least concern population stable


1. Skipjack Tuna make up 60% of the legally caught commercial tuna catch worldwide and is mostly used for canning.


2. Although it is not currently threatened, the fishing nets and other unsustainable methods used to catch skipjack tuna results in bycatch of other vulnerable species, including dolphin and other juvenile tuna species.


3. Skipjack tuna are an important prey species for sharks and play an important intermediate role in the food chain.




Day 26/100

Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)

Least concerned, good news, population increasing.


1. The humpback whale is one of the world’s most popular mammals, known for their spectacular leaps out water, distinctive tail flukes, and their melodic singing.


2. As recently as 1988, humpback whales were listed as endangered by IUCN, thanks to global conservation efforts the current population has rebounded.


3. Sadly these whales are however still harmed by pollution, noise, ship strikes, and entanglement in fishing gear. Offshore oil and gas development is also a clear threat.





Day 27/100

Zebra Seabream (Diplodus cervinus)

Listed least concern population decreasing


1. The name of the genus comes from the Greek diplous means two, and odous tooth.


2. This fish has lots of needles but is a popular food leading to overfishing which significantly threatens populations.


3. They are also highly prized in recreational harpoon fishing.




Day 28/100 

Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus)

Least concern but some populations, such as near Greenland, are endangered.


1. The Bowhead is the second largest whale in the world, second only to the blue whale.


2. Extensive commercial hunting, beginning in the 1500s, depleted Bowhead Whales. They once inhabited oceans throughout the northern hemisphere but over the last hundred years their population has been greatly reduced into five geographically secluded stocks.


3. Native communities in the U.S. and Russia hunt Bowheads for subsistence purposes. This killing is approved and its sustainability is apparently ensured by the International Whaling Commission (IWC)




Day 29/100 

Queen Triggerfish (Balistes vetula)

Near threatened population decreasing


1. These fish are one of the largest and most aggressive of the triggerfish but fall prey to even larger fish and sharks.


2. When hiding from predators, they lock themselves into small openings and lock their dorsal fin in place to prevent predators from pulling them out. They also can produce an audible warning.


3. The status of the queen triggerfish is not well documented, however it is vulnerable to trapping and spearfishing, commercially caught for aquariums and for food.




Day 30/100

Ocean Sunfish (Mola Mola)

Vulnerable, population decreasing


1. These are the heaviest bony fish, often weighing as much as the average car but can fly up to 10 feet into the sky. They do this jump to shake off parasites that plague their bodies.


2. They are slow-moving creatures who spend their time near the surface, lying on their side in the sun as their name suggests.  They’re very slow moving which means they often come into contact with humans in passing boats.


3. Sunfish frequently get snagged in drift gill nets and can suffocate on our rubbish like plastic bags , which resemble jellyfish.




Day 31/100

Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus)

Listed vulnerable


1. Fin whales have a distinct ridge along their back behind the dorsal fin, this gives them the nickname razorbacks. They also have a very unusual feature, the lower right jaw is bright white and the lower left jaw is black.


2. Fin whales have been severely impacted worldwide by commercial whaling hunted until the last century for oil and meat. Commercial whaling remains a threat for fin whales, Iceland resumed commercial fin whaling in 2013 with a quota of 184 whales. The majority of this whale meat ends up in Japanese markets.


3. Like other large whales, fin whales are threatened by environmental change including habitat loss, toxics and climate change.




Day 32/100

Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans)

Vulnerable population decreasing


1. Atlantic marlins and one of the biggest fish in the world.


2. Sport fishing enthusiasts spend tens of thousands of dollars to catch large blue marlin, as they are known for putting up a tremendous fight when hooked. They are released alive although recent data suggests once they are released individuals frequently die.


3. Their meat has commercial value throughout the world, particularly in Japan for sashimi, sometimes smoked and sold by roadside vendors. Blue marlin are often caught as bycatch by tuna longline fisheries.





Day 33/100

Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus)

Endangered population increasing


1. The blue whale is the largest animal on the planet, weighing as much as 33 elephants. They are also the loudest animals on Earth, even louder than a jet engine.


2. In the past blue whales were hunted for their oil used in soap, perfume, candles and cosmetics. Their bones were used for corsets, umbrellas and various other products including tools such as fishing hooks.


3. Whales are at the top of the food chain and have an important role in the overall health of the marine environment.





Day 34/100 

Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)

Critically endangered, population decreasing


1. This species has been intensively fished since the 1950s, highly prized on the Japanese sashimi market, where the overwhelming majority of the global catch is sold.


2. Only 3 – 8% of the original number of Southern Bluefin Tuna still exist.


3. There is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding, if its population continues to decline, the species faces the possibility of extinction.




Day 35/100

Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

Endangered, population decreasing


1. It is thought to be the fastest species of shark reaching speeds of up to 80 kph, hunted for sport because of its size and speed this prized game fish is suffering from the  high demand in fishing.


2. Like other sharks, they are also hunted for their fins, skin and liver oil. The human desire for shark fin soup alone has caused the shortfin mako shark population to decrease exponentially.


3. Shortfin mako sharks have a large brain-to-body ratio, which means they have big brains for their size, this means they have the potential for intelligence.






Day 36/100

Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

Decreasing population listed least concern


1. This species of high commercial importance has lost its sustainable status after overfishing has causes a catastrophic decline in stocks. It is caught with trawls, purse seines, gill and trammel nets.


2. It is also caught for recreational sport, fished with hook and line.


3.Climate change affects the distribution of this species. Mackerel fished around Britain are protected by an EU quota system, as sea temperature rises the fish have began to head north, so now are out of these controls.





Day 37/100

European flounder(Platichthys flesus)

Least concern population decreasing


1. The is a flattened fish, swimming and resting on one side. During development, its eyes usually migrate to the right side of the fish and what appears to be its upper surface is in reality the right side.


2. The European flounder can be found in estuaries where it can tolerant low salinity levels.


3. Although it can take up to 2 days they can completely change the skin colour to blend in with the rocks or sand.








Day 38/100

Silver Spinyfin (Diretmus argenteus)

Population unknown, least concern


1. This species is caught as caught as bycatch by trawl fisheries.


2. There are no known conservation measures.


3. They are found around the world at depths down to 2,000m.




Day 39/100

Longtail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol)

Data deficient, population unknown


1. This species grows more slowly and lives longer than other tuna species.


2. Longtail tunas are commercially caught for food. The IUCN has not fully evaluated their conservation status but the collapse in populations of other tuna species due to overfishing gives cause for concern.


3. Climate change impacts on longtail tuna are not fully understood, however the available knowledge states climate change will impact fish numbers and distribution through sea temperature and prey changes.






Day 40/100

Island Cowfish (Acanthostracion notacanthus)

Listed data deficient


1. When threatened this fish can release a toxin that may kill other fish.


2. Their fins are small making them slow swimmers, but capable of short rapid bursts.


3. This fish is taken from the water as it is considered to have high commercial value for the aquarium fish trade.




Day 41/100

Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus)

Near threatened, population decreasing


1. This huge bird is the largest of the pelican species and one of the largest living bird species.


2. During the 20th century, their numbers underwent a dramatic decline for reasons that are not entirely understood. The most likely reason is loss of habitat due to human activities.


3. Dalmatian pelicans are shot by fishermen who believe the birds are dangerously depleting the fish population and hence threatening their livelihood. Another reason for the decline in population is poaching, people kill these pelicans to use or sell their bills as pouches.




Day 42/100

Dusky Grouper (Epinephelus marginatus)

Vulnerable population decreasing


1. Due to many years of over-exploitation combined with its sex change behaviour this species has been declared vulnerable.


2. Groupers are actually solitary carnivores that hunt near the bottom usually at dusk. Food is powerfully suctioned into their large mouths and then swallowed whole.


3. Its scientific name is derived from the Greek word meaning cloudy, relating to the pale markings on its skin.




Day 43/100

European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)

Listed least concern population decreasing


1. Declines are due to environmental problems, local overfishing and invasive species.


2. This is a species with high commercial importance, widely eaten, considered an oily fish with a salty, strong taste. Some people eat them raw they are also sold fresh, dried, smoked, salted, in oil, frozen, canned, and processed into fishmeal and fish oil.


3. Anchovies are also widely used as fishing bait.






Day 44/100

White Sardinella (Sardinella albella)

Listed least concern with population unknown


1. Also known as deep-bodied sardine.


2. It is an important fish caught for food, eaten dried, salted or fresh.


3. Adults school out in coastal waters but juveniles are often found in lagoons and estuaries.




Day 45/100

Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus)

Near threatened population decreasing


1. The main threat to the species is from overfishing although rising sea levels lead to increased coastal erosion and flooding which is contributing to habitat loss.


2. It is very vocal, making a typical shrill piping call “kleep” or “ke-beep” often repeated.


3. Despite its name, oysters do not form a large part of its diet, but the bird still lives up to its name, as few if any other wading birds are capable of opening oysters at all.




Day 46/100

Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier)

Near threatened population decreasing


1. The tiger shark has an average lifespan of 50 years and they reproduce slowly making them particularly vulnerable to population decline, posing a major threat to the ocean’s ecosystem.


2. They eat everything from albatrosses, venomous sea snakes, and other sharks to human rubbish.


3. Like other shark species they are eaten both as steaks and as fish and chips. They are also killed for their jaws and teeth. However, the two main threats to sharks are the demand for shark fins and shark cartilage for primarily the Asian market.



Day 47/100

European Sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

Listed least concerned population unknown


1. This is a species of high commercial importance, fished by several types of fishing gear but mostly from trawlers and purse seines.


2. The juveniles are used as bait and fully grown sprats are used in the production of fish meal and for human consumption canned, smoked, and eaten fresh.


3. Coastal and river pollution are a  threat to this species.




Day 48/100

Whitespotted Surgeonfish (Acanthurus guttatus)

Listed least concern population unknown


1. This species is caught for the aquarium trade but many do not survive transportation and acclimatizing.


2. The majority of surgeonfishes are found on coral reef habitat. More research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions that are particularly worrying for this species.


3. The name of the species, guttatus, comes from the Latin gutta meaning speckle.






Day 49/100

American Crested Pipefish (Cosmocampus brachycephalus)


1. Listed least concern population decreasing

This species has been impacted by the loss of its seagrass habitat.


2. This pipefish is ovoviviparous, meaning the males carrying eggs and giving birth to live young.


3. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this fish.





Day 50/100 

Semicircle Angelfish (Pomacanthus semicirculatus)

Listed least concern


1. They are highly prized for aquariums due to their brilliant colours. This trade puts some pressure on numbers in the wild however it does not seem to affect the global population.


2. This species can be extremely aggressive towards other fish.


3. The juveniles have different patterns that gradually change to the adult colouration.





Day 51/100

Yellowtail Sawtail (Prionurus chrysurus)

Data deficient population unknown


1. This is a tropical fish endemic to the coral reefs around Indonesia so commonly known as the Indonesian sawtail.


2. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for this species.


3. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.



Day 52/100

Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis)

Endangered but population may be increasing


1. The common name sei, pronounced “say” or “sigh” is derived from the Norwegian word for pollack as the whale usually appears in Norwegian waters when pollack are around.


 2. This whale is one of the fastest whales, reaching speeds of up to 35 miles per hour.


3. Whales are at the top of the food chain and have an important role in the overall health of the marine environment. Sadly they became a major target for commercial whaling after the preferred stocks of blue and fin whales had been depleted. Today, although commercial whaling has been officially halted, the Sei whale is subject to "scientific whaling" by Japan—that is, killing whales for scientific research






Day 53/100

Indigo Hamlet (Hypoplectrus indigo)

Listed least concern population unknown


1. The juveniles are the potential prey of the invasive Lionfish.


2. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place.


3. It occasionally makes its way into the aquarium trade.





Day 54/100

Yellowtail Surgeonfish (Prionurus punctatus)

Listed least concern population currently stable


1. More research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on this species' populations.


2. There are no known conservation measures for this species.


3. This is a popular fish used in the aquarium trade.





Day 55/100

Arabian Scad (Trachurus indicus)

Vulnerable population decreasing


1. This species is of minor commercial importance and is collected using bottom trawls, handlines and gillnets but has a negligible market value. It is also a minor component of the bycatch in shrimp trawling.


2. Large-scale commercial exploitation by fisheries is a major threat to this species.


3. There are no species-specific conservation measures.




Day 56/100

Sandbar Shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus)

Vulnerable population decreasing


1. The sandbar shark is unfortunately a top target for commercial fisheries because of its large fins. It’s heavily fished for its fins, flesh, skin and liver.


2. Regardless of their large size and powerful build, there are hardly any attacks on humans so sadly kept in in many aquariums, people consider them as one of the safest sharks to swim with in captivity.


3. Recreational fishermen target them for capture as a game fish.




Day 57/100 

Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus)

Criticality endangered population decreasing


1. Overfishing is a major threat to this species, it is highly-valued by commercial and recreational fisheries, traded on the international level in some areas. It is taken by handline, longline, fish traps, spear guns and gillnets.


2. It has been identified as a prey item of the invasive Lionfish.


3.It is also valued for domestic trade as well as dive ecotourism.




Day 58/100

Weedy Seadragon (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus)

Listed concern population decreasing


1. This species is primarily threatened by habitat degradation and loss.


2 It is not used in traditional medicine as other syngnathids are.


3. It is exploited for the aquarium trade but at low levels that are not likely of conservation concern.




Day 59/100 

Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba)

Listed least concern population stable


1. The dynamics of Antarctic krill are likely to be impacted by climate change and may result in a reduced habitat range, more research on the impact of climate change is needed.


2. Commercial fishery operating since the 1970s, currently catch 300,000 tonnes annually. Products include krill meal and krill oil for human consumption.


3. Another challenge for Antarctic krill is the acidification of the oceans caused by increasing levels of carbon dioxide.




Day 60/100

Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta)

Data deficient population unknown


1. This species is highly commercial and is marketed fresh, frozen, canned, dried salted and smoked.


2. There are no species-specific conservation measures. Although landings are increasing, without information on effort, it is not known if current fishing activities are affecting population abundance.


3. Adults feed on macroplankton, mainly larval shrimps by swimming with the mouth wide open.




Day 61/100 

Spotted-face Surgeonfish (Acanthurus maculiceps)

Listed least concern population unknown


1. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species.


2. Most Surgeonfish have a scalpel by the caudal fin, used to defend themselves.


3. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for this species.




Day 62/100 

Thorny Seahorse (Hippocampus histrix)

Vulnerable population decreasing


1. They are targeted for many uses including traditional Chinese medicine, the aquarium trade and curiosities all traded internationally.


2. Bycatch from the shrimp fisheries has had drastic effects on seahorses, harming individuals, destroying social structure, reducing reproduction, affecting population structure, and devastating habitats.


3. Seahorses are notoriously poor swimmers and locomotion is generated by the dorsal which is located low down on the back.




Day 63/100

Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens)

Listed least concern population stable


1. At night, the yellow coloring fades slightly, and a prominent brownish patch develops in the middle with a horizontal white band. They rapidly resume their bright yellow color during daylight.


2. This species is popular with aquarium collectors which may cause a decline in population.


3. More research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on this species' populations.




Day 64/100

Ocean Quahog (Arctica islandica)

Listed by OSPAR as threatened/declining species and habitats.


1. It is the longest-lived animal known to man, with one individual found to be 507 years old.


2. The main threat to this species comes from disturbances to the seabed. This is particularly linked to beam trawling which is known to cause shell damage.


3. Other threats include sand and gravel extraction and direct as well as indirect effects of oil and gas extraction, which suggest a decrease in growth rates.





Day 65/100

Bogue (Boops boops)

Least concern stable


1. There may be localized declines in population from fishing. It is marketed fresh, frozen, dried-salted or smoked.


2. This species is also used for fishmeal and oil and commonly as bait in tuna fisheries.


3. A study reports on the presence of microplastics in the gastrointestinal tracts of this fish. The results show microplastic ingestion in 68% of full stomach samples with an average of 3.75 items per fish.





Day 66/100 

Long-snouted Seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus)

Data deficient population unknown


1. They are sometimes sold as curiosities, good-luck charms and used in traditional medicines. The volume of this trade is unknown, but without appropriate management this trade may represent a threat to the species.


2. The seahorse has no scales, the shape is from its skin stretched over bony plates.


3. Other than humans, adult seahorses have very few predators.






Day 67/100 

Deepbody Boarfish (Antigonia capros)

Least concern population stable


1. There are no species specific conservation efforts in place.


2. It is of minor importance to commercial fishery operations.


3. This species can reach a length of 30.5 cm




Day 68/100 

Blue Mackerel(Scomber australasicus)

Least concern population stable


1. Blue mackerel are caught for both commercial and private use, for food as well as bait for tuna and other fish.


2. Blue mackerel are often used as cat food.


3. When in a school and in a feeding frenzy, blue mackerel will strike at nonfood items such as cigarette butts and even bare hooks.





Day 69/100

Bluefin Trevally(Caranx melampygus)

Least concern population unknown


1. This species is highly regarded as a game and food fish.


2. The bluefin trevally is a strong predatory fish, displaying a wide array of hunting techniques.


3. Laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of the toxin in the species flesh, the risk of poisoning has affected the sales of the fish in the marketplace in recent years.




Day 70/100

Blue sea slug (Glaucus atlanticus)



1. Like most small marine invertebrates, little is known about the conservation status.


2. Blue glaucuses can swallow air and hold it in their stomach in order to float on the water’s surface.


3. It isn't venomous by itself, it eats large, venomous prey and stores the prey’s stinging cells in their bodies to later use against its own predators.





Day 71/100

Red Porgy (Pagrus pagrus)

Least concern population unknown


1. It is highly prized in many commercial and recreational fisheries.


2. Populations have declined because of over-exploitation, but in some areas minimum size limits have been set to try to redress this.


3. Additional fishing regulations are recommended.






Day 72/100

Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus)

Least concern population unknown


1. This species is (or has been) hunted for food in some places around the world.


2. Risso’s dolphins are predominantly deep water lovers and are therefore relatively unstudied.


3. Risso’s dolphins have a distinctive grey body which over time becomes covered in scars.




Day 73/100

Bali sardinella (Sardinella lemuru)

Near threatened population decreasing


1. Bali sardinella is an important species used in Indonesian feed mills to supply shrimp feed, as well as in imported fishmeal. It is also eaten fresh or processed.


2. More research and population stock assessments are recommended to better understand the population of this species.


3. Adults form large schools in coastal waters.





Day 74/100

Powder Blue Surgeonfish (Acanthurus leucosternon)

Least concern population unknown


1. It is commonly collected for the aquarium trade.


2. The fish does not undergo color changes as it matures. The intensity of its blue color shows off if the fish is healthy or not.


3. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for this species.




Day 75/100

Sailfin Tang (Zebrasoma veliferum)

Least concern population stable


1. It is harvested for food and is usually caught in traps and by using spears.


2. Their skin is light beige with stripes, it can turn dark brown under stress.


3. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.




Day 76/100

Brown Comber (Serranus hepatus)

Least concern population unknown


1. These fish are hermaphrodites, each capable of individual functional male and female reproduction.


2. There are no major threats at the present time and no indication of population declines at either global or regional scales.


3. No species-specific measures are currently in place, however, several marine protected areas are found within its range





Day 77/100

Atlantic John Dory (Zeus faber)

Data deficient population unknown


1. It is used in commercial fisheries as food, oil and fish meal. It is also a recreational species and has value in the aquarium trade.


2. There are no species specific conservation efforts in place however, the range for this species overlaps with a number of marine protected areas.


3. The John Dory has a high laterally compressed body – its body is so thin it can hardly be seen from the front.




Day 78/100

Giant Herring (Elops hawaiensis)

Least concern population unknown


1. It’s Hawaiian name is awa 'aua.


2. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species although distribution overlaps with marine reserves in parts of its range.


3. This species uses estuarine areas and hypersaline lagoons, changes in the quality of these habitats may affect the population dynamic





Day 79/100

Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps)

Least concern population decreasing


1. It is widely fished and is one of the most important species in Indian fisheries.


2. Due to large annual fluctuations in the population numbers of this species, intense fishing pressure is likely to pose a significant threat to regional sub-populations in years where it coincides with low population size.


3. Further research is needed on the factors determining population levels.






Day 80/100 #the100dayproject

Twospined Angelfish (Centropyge bispinosa)

Least concern population listed as stable 


1. This species is frequently exported through the aquarium trade.


2. This species is believed to be present within a number of marine protected areas.


3. There seems to be no other potential major threats to this species.






Day 81/100

Scaled Sardine (Harengula jaguana)

Least concern population unknown 


1. It is a fast-growing species, living only 12 to 18 months.


2. Its flesh is reported to have an unpleasant odor and considered to be toxic.


3. There are no species-specific conservation measures.





Day 82/100

Rosy Dory (Cyttopsis rosea)

Least concern population listed as stable 


1. It is usually caught near the bottom with trawls. 


2. The flesh is considered to be of quality but this species is too small and not abundant enough to be an important fishery resource.


3. There are no species-specific conservation measure for this species.





Day 83/100

Hardhead Silverside (Atherinomorus stipes)

Least concern population stable 


1. This species is harvested for use as a bait fish.


2. This species is associated with coral reef habitat, which is threatened by coral bleaching, tropical storms, hurricanes, coral disease, overfishing and water pollution.


3. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species.





Day 84/100

Horse mussels (Modiolus modiolus)

An OSPAR threatened species and declining habitat.


1. The annual growth lines are clear with fine sculpturing of concentric grooves and ridges.


2. Many horse mussels live for more than 25 years and some survive for 50 years.


3. Bottom trawls and dredges, particularly those used for scallops, have caused widespread and long-lasting damage to some horse mussel beds.







Day 85/100

Atlantic Black Wing Flyingfish(Hirundichthys rondeletii)

Least concern population unknown 


1. In the summer months this species is targeted for recreational fishing and food.


2. There is no information available on specific conservation measures for this species.


3. It is fished using hand nets and harpoons.





Day 86/100

Hedgehog Seahorse (Hippocampus spinosissimus)

Vulnerable population decreasing 


1. It is traded both live, for the aquarium trade as well as dry, for use in traditional medicine.


2. Although there have been no dedicated population estimates analyses of seahorse trade and fisher surveys suggest population declines of at least 30% in the past 10 years.


3. The challenge is increased further by the fact that most seahorses are caught as bycatch.






Day  87/100

Yellowfin Surgeonfish (Acanthurus xanthopterus)

Least concern stable 


1. This species is only of minor importance in the aquarium trade.


2. It is a targeted fish species caught by hook and line and spears, occasionally found in markets. 


3. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species' populations.





Day  88/100

Jambeau Spikefish (Parahollardia lineata)

Least concern population unknown 


1. They are related to the pufferfishes and triggerfishes.


2. They live in deep waters and species is not known to be utilized.


3. There are no major threats known and have no species-specific conservation measures in place.





Day  89/100 #the100dayproject

Conus retifer

Least concern population decreasing


1. It’s common name the ‘netted cone’, is a species of sea snail.


2. The species may be suffering from predation by starfish which may explain part of the observed declines.


3.The shells of this species are traded for the collector market and there is. no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed.






Day 90/100

Electric Lantern Fish (Electrona risso)


1. Least concern population unknown. 


2. This species is epipelagic to mesopelagic, living at depths of 90 to 820 meters, swimming at shallower depths during daylight hours.


3. This species is not commercially exploited and there are no known major threats.No specific conservation measures are in place for this species.





Day 91/100

Pot-bellied Seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis)

Least concern population unknown.


1. They are used as curios, in traditional medicines, and the aquarium trade.


2. Further research is needed in order to determine population size and trends in abundance for this species.


3. They are voracious feeders, eating mainly crustaceans, they do not chew, so they can eat to excess because of their small gut tract.





Day 92/100

Chambered Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius)

ESA Threatened


1.The threats to nautiluses include being targeted, market-driven, for international trade in their shells.


2. Habitat degradation throughout much of their range is also a threat.


3. Given their slow growth, late maturity, low reproductive output, and low mobility, chambered nautiluses are particularly vulnerable to overfishing.





Day 93/100

Alfonsino (Beryx decadactylus)

Least concern population unknown


1. It is a highly regarded foodfish targeted by deep-water trawl and longline fisheries.


2. Despite being widespread throughout its range, it is an uncommon fish in many areas, likely due to exploitation by commercial fisheries and depletion due to bycatch.


3. It could also be threatened by habitat loss due to deep-water trawling causing damage to deep-sea corals.





Day 94/100

Belted Cardinalfish (Apogon townsendi)

Least concern population stable


1. This species may occasionally be found in the aquarium trade.


2. It has been recorded in the diet of the invasive lionfish.


3. Their eggs are carried in the mouth of the adult as they mature.






Day 95/100 

Blue Jack Mackerel (Trachurus picturatus)

Least concern population stable 


1. This is a commercial species.


2. A minimum length requirement of 15 cm was established by the European Union in 2007.


3. It is caught by bottom trawls in deep water.




Day 96/100 

Broadband Anchovy (Anchoviella lepidentostole)

Least concern population unknown 


1. This species is threatened by overexploitation by regional fisheries. 


2. Its reproductive success can be impacted by environmental change including degradation as a result of mangrove destruction and sewage dumping.


3. It supports anchovy fisheries and is mainly used as canned fish, oils and flour, as well as bait.




Day 97/100 

Barbour's Seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri)

Vulnerable population decreasing 


1. It is threatened by exploitation, from targeted small-scale fisheries as well as bycatch in trawl fisheries.


2. The species is targeted and retained as valuable bycatch for the global trade in traditional medicine and aquarium fishes.


3. This species is also threatened due to a loss of seagrass habitat in the region, which results from destructive trawl fisheries, shrimp aquaculture, coastal development and sea-filling, and pollution






Day 98/100

Thorny Tinselfish (Grammicolepis brachiusculus)

Least concern population unknown


1. This species is not of commercial interest.


2. It is found in deep oceanic waters at depths of from 300 to 1,026 metres.


3. There are no species-specific conservation efforts in place despite the decline in quality to its habitat.






Day 99/100 

Chesapeake blue crab (Callinectes sapidus)


1. The crab's blue hue stems from a number of pigments in the shell, when the crab is cooked, it turns a bright purple.


2.It’s name comes from the Greek calli-beautiful, nectes-swimmer, and Latin sapidus-savory.


3.Blue crabs are extremely sensitive to environmental and habitat changes.





Day 100/100 

That’s it...100 designs created everyday for #the100dayproject

This design contains 100 fish to celebrate reaching the end of this project 


Jenyns's Sprat (Ramnogaster arcuata)

Least concern population unknown 


1. Major threats impacting this species are unknown.


2. This species grows to a maximum standard length of 9cm.


3. No use and trade information is available for this species.